Category: Articles

Nazi Rally in Taiwan

A school in Hashincu, Taiwan held a rally in which the pupils were dressed as Nazi soldiers and their teacher dressed as Hitler. The students carried the third Reich’s flags and banners during the march. The theme was chosen by the students for a winter festival theme, with school authorities cooperating. Pictures from the event quickly became viral, and made their way to the Israeli Consul in Taiwan.

The head of the Israeli Consul at Taiwan, Asher Yarden posted on the official Facebook page a severe message, which was later published by international media.

“It is deplorable and shocking that seven decades only after the world had witnessed the horrors of the Holocaust, a high school in Taiwan is supporting such an outrageous action.We strongly condemn this tasteless occurrence and call on the Taiwanese authorities, in all levels, to initiate educational programs which would introduce the meaning of the Holocaust and teach its history and universal meaning.” Yarden said.

The Taiwanese Ministry of Education reacted as well, expressing regret and willingness to change, and stated that the incident results from ignorance on the topic. The school principal resigned and apologized, accepting full responsibility.

The Israeli Consul invited the same students to an International Holocaust Memorial day event, which aimed to inform of the real meaning of the Holocaust. The event embraced important values, such as tolerance and acceptance. Yarden added that the main point of the event was Holocaust awareness and information, citing that the Taiwanese government is not antisemitic, and that the festival theme stemmed from ignorance.

The ceremony hosted 550 guests, 150 were students who participated the rally. Among the speakers were Taiwan’s President, Tsai Ing-wen among other government officials. The event was hosted at the National Library, who were presented with books on the Holocaust. The ceremony gained intense media coverage.

Source: Ynet News

Image: BBC

by: Roni Zedek

European Legislation Against Antisemitism

In many countries, anti-Nazi laws, and particularly laws which hinder antisemitism, do not exist. Currently only some European countries have legislation criminalizing Nazi references; including Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, The Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Spain and Switzerland.

Antisemitic acts or speech is an explicit violation of the law in these countries. However, in Russia for example, certain laws may be interpreted as prohibiting antisemitism, although no official legislation for it exists. Other countries, who lack laws specifically against antisemitism; combat this by enforcing laws against discrimination.

Today in Germany, mockery of the Holocaust in public is a federal crime, punishable by up to five years in prison. There are various ways that the German government deals with cases such as these. Due to the severity of the potential sentence following Holocaust denial, it comes as no surprise that radical right wing discourse has used Nazi terminology to fight migration, asylum seekers and immigrant from in Islamic countries.

In the last two decades many EU countries have passed similar laws in order to fight xenophobia and racism. As of today, only the U.K. and a few Scandinavian Countries oppose such laws, which they say undermine free speech. In other Western countries, such as the United States these laws would be found undemocratic. For example, in 1977 in Smith vs. Collin the U.S. Supreme Court ruled to allow members of the National Socialist Party to march while holding swastika signs through a large Jewish neighborhood, where 1 out of 6 was a Holocaust survivor.

Many of the legal systems in Europe do not clearly define racist crimes. Legislation that works to combat antisemitism is important, but lacking. Monitoring areas along with a proper recording of antisemitic incidents are all helpful tools, which should be employed in the fight against antisemitism. However, only with the proper education can we succeed in combating hate.

Source: Yad Vashem; The Guardian

Image: Michel Euler/AP

By: Ohad Barazani

Germany’s Education System and The Holocaust

Since the 1990s, German authorities have accepted and implemented several ways to commemorate the Jewish victims of the Holocaust: the Holocaust Memorial in Berlin, the Stolperstein block signs, The Library monument, the Jewish museum in Berlin, Dechau, Buchenwald and many more. These spots have become popular tourist attractions, reminding others of the past. German schools take students to these sites to educate them about the atrocities committed years prior.

German students confirm that they first heard the term “Holocaust” between the ages 9-12. The subject is taught regularly starting in the fifth grade and is reviewed each year. A well-known approach is through individual stories, such as Anne Frank’s. The message becomes easier to grasp and less overwhelming.

From childhood through graduation, the Second World War is well integrated into the German educational curriculum. Due to the age gap among youth today, many feel distanced and disconnect from their grandparents’ generation. These often provoke negative feelings among youth, who are taught that Jews are normal people just like themselves, and are encouraged to accept all people regardless of race.

In order to compensate these negative feelings, many youth find consultation in volunteering mainly with refugees. Native Germans are allowed to volunteer in the nearest refugee center and offer to tutor refugees or donate money, food or clothes. Andy, 24  a volunteer from Koblenz, says he tries to integrate immigrants as much as possible into society, and encourages going to historical sites, watching movies or discussing with immigrants Germany’s role in the Holocaust. This spurs several Muslim youth to hold positive views about government.

Another initiative is a project called The Action Reconciliation Service for Peace (ARSP). This organization sends German youth to Israel and other countries to volunteer with Holocaust survivors. The project has been running since 1958 in countries that were harmed by the Nazis, with more than 1500 volunteers in Israel throughout the years. Feedback is positive as many Holocaust survivors treasure the opportunity to talk with someone in their mother tongue and often tell the young volunteers things that they never told their families. The survivors who great appreciation for the program and find it feels like home to many.

Source: Ynet

Image: ARSP

By: Roni Zedek

Populism, Isolationism and Anti-Semitism

Europe is having trouble grappling with the upswing of anti-Semitism. Often we hear about incidents, which prove that anti-Semitism is still alive. Many governments are struggling to cope with the aftermath of terror attacks in countries such as France, Belgium and Denmark.

Dr. Moshe Kantor, head of the European Jewish Congress has a deep concern for what he calls the “rise of populism and isolationism [that are] running through the democracies of the West.” Kantor will be speaking to the European Parliament next week in honor of Holocaust Remembrance Day. With the infamous Brexit looming in Britain, and controversial elections in France, the Netherlands and Germany, the outcome for quieting anti-Semitic extremist right-wing groups seems weak.

“All governments across Europe and voters at home [should] stand up to right wing extremism and challenge the hatred.” Kantor said earlier this week.

Several of these populist and isolationist sentiments come in response to the recent refugee crisis from Muslim countries. The influx of Muslim immigrants, who have vastly different backgrounds and cultural expectations from tareditional European countries has sparked dissent among Europeans. In addition to posing new security problems by backing Islamist terrorist groups, several help contribute to the rise of anti-Semitism.

In Austria, the head of the Jewish community reported an “increase in the number of anti-Semitic incidents committed by Muslims [against Jews].” Belgium is also experiencing an increase of public expressions of anti-Semitism.  Swastikas have become a feature of the modern European landscape, often in metropolitan areas. Proper action must be taken.

The biggest threat perhaps is countries’ hesitation to combat the phenomena. Humanity need not be reminded of history and how populism brought Hitler to power.

Source: The Times Of Israel, The Independent

Photo: SA Beny Shlevich, Flickr

By: Ohad Barazani


How Can Life Go On?

One might think, that being a Jew in England these days is safe and easy. Jews can carry out traditions of their faith in public, they are an integral part of the society in England. The ugly specter of anti-Semitism is a thing of the past. Antisemitism is a dark part of history, a part in which Jews were prosecuted solely for being Jews.

Anti-Semitism is alive and kicking in the UK. Holocaust denial is a real thing. Jews are targeted and victimized all over the country. University campuses, which were supposedly hububs of free speech and acceptance are in fact not that accepting. Messy scenes of vandalism and desecration of Jewish sites aren’t uncommon. Most of all, criticism of Israel seems to be a mere cover for criticism of Jews in general.

Recently, the Labour Party has had to suspend many of its members due to racist displays. Labour Party leader, Jeremy Corbyn has secured support from the notorious Holocaust denier, David Irving who called him “impressive” and “a fine man”. Irving has claimed only a few Jews were killed by the Nazis and that the concentration camps were simply a hoax. He once compared the Auschwitz death camp to Disneyland.

Why is it that anti-Semitic incidents aren’t so rare in one of the most western countries, such as the U.K.? Why is it, that that a prominent Holocaust denier such as David Irving enjoys continuous and lately even growing support? Anti-Semitism and Holocaust denial seem to be the fad on both the left and right.

This year National Holocaust Memorial Day on January 27, 2017 holds the theme: “How can life go on?” How can life go on with the trauma and coming to terms with the loss? How can life go on with the displacement of the survivors and the refugees? How can life go on with remembering the travesties? But most of all, how can life go on with facing the hate, the denial and trivialization?

Historically Raphael Lemkin, a Jew whose family perished in the Holocaust was the first to coin the word genocide, the collective murder of an ethnic group sparked by hatred.Denial is the final stage of genocide. By denying the existence of a genocide which took place against the Jews in the 1940s, or even minimizing the atrocities, one agrees with and actually “participates” in a modern day genocide.

Holocaust deniers are not really concerned with the Holocaust, and not concerned with the truth either. Their sole focus is on Jews, and with their existence today.


Image: GPO, Haim Zach

By: Hadassah Schwartz

Antisemitism Report: Hate Crimes Against British Jews Surge, Prosecutions Drop

According to “Campaign Against Anti-Semitism” (CAA), in the last few years there has been a continuous rise in the number of hate crimes committed against British Jews.

Last year, there was a 26 percent increase in crimes committed against British Jews and a 51% spike in reported violent anti-Semitic acts, the group reported.

“Anti-Semitic crime has surged in the last two years and is now at a record high,” said Gideon Falter, the Chairman of CAA, a British charity that exposes anti-Semitism. “Instead of demonstrating that British Jews can rely on the authorities to prosecute antisemitism, the number of cases charged has actually dropped.”

Out of 15,000 hate crimes prosecuted last year, only 12 of those prosecutions were for hate crimes against British Jews. As a result, “British Jews are being denied justice,” Falter said in a statement.

CAA has issued legal guidelines to educate the British Jewish community on “how to obtain justice.”


Mother, Daughter stand up to Neo-Nazi group

One day in England, on the streets of Bath, Sharon and Savanna Forbs took advantage of their day off and went for a family day. To their surprise, they came across a Neo Nazi youth group calling to “free white Britain”. The main speaker, a young man, preached about freeing Britain of its non white citizens. Sharon and Savanna didn’t approve of this racism, so they chose to act against the Neo Nazi speaker. While filming, they argued with the speaker. This incident got me thinking of the family role in racism, and how it could be prevented by educating towards pluralism.

Family has a lot of influence on what children believe. Most of the time, parents are not aware that they are influencing their children’s behavior towards other people. Body language and facial expressions can contribute to racist behavior. Children see how their parents acts towards different social group and learn how to behave. Another way of influencing children, is not allowing children to be friends with people from other social groups. Finally, the most profound way to influence children to have racist beliefs, are family values.

Racist families are common in Europe now days. In particular, Neo Nazi families who live in isolated communities in Europe and the United States. These families educate their children extreme, racist ideologies, including: Supremacy of the white race, adoration of Hitler and the Nazi leaders, anti Semitism, nationalism and homophobia. These ideologies are taught by the kids’ parents while they are still young, using Nazi books and educational games. Often, when the children get older, they are sent by their parents to right national youth camps where they are taught survival, weaponry, self defense, and Nazi ideology. All of this education and influence is passed from generation to generation.  The parents were sent by their parents to these camps and as adults send their children. A racist cycle.

Sharon and savanna came across this kind of Neo Nazi youth group who truly believed that all the non-white Brits (including all the immigrants, people of color and LGBT people) are contaminating England, and therefore should be expelled. They were taught as young children by their parents and extremist right racist education, to be racists. This youth group is called “National action”. Their goal is to “clean” Britain from their non white citizens. As part of their racist agenda, they take advantage of the fact that there is freedom of speech, to protest in the town square. Many of Bath’s citizens didn’t like what they heard, but didn’t do anything to stop it out of fear that they could get hurt by the violent Nazi group.

Sharon and Savanna were outraged by the spoken racism. Savanna is mixed race. She is what this group was protesting against. They spoke with the racist teen while filming the conversation using a smart phone. They approached him and asked him if Savanna should be expelled from England because she is not purely white. The teenager was surprised to see that anyone had responded to him. He was sure that everyone was afraid of him. He looked at the smiling Savanna and said “I don’t know, she kooks white to me”. Confused by the two women, he said that England has always been white. Smiling, savanna told him that times had changed, and now society has racial diversity and should stay that way.

The teenager had no response. He had lost the argument, so he fled together with his friends. Sharon and Savanna disapproved of his leaving, telling him that he can’t even have a conversation. The Neo Nazi walked away as the city cheered for the brave mother and daughter. This incident between the Forbs family and the Neo Nazi group, represents a war of education and family values. Europe is on the edge of racism. More and more middle class families are attracted to extremist right ideologies. They create communities sponsored by right extremist politicians and donate money towards racist educational programs for youth, where the children learn to hate and hurt like the “National Action” group in Britain.

On the other hand, we have the family values of acceptance and solidarity. Values of progress and pluralism. Just like the Forbs family, who didn’t approve and acted against speaking racism. Sharon and savanna knew that the racist group was against their family because of their mixed race, and therefore should be expelled, according to the racist ideology. For the survival of their family, they fought back and didn’t let the hatred win.

In conclusion, the important lesson we should learn from this story, is the spirit of defiance. In today’s world, reality is full of hatred instead of love. There are groups in the Western world that are afraid of acceptance, of uniqueness and of love. The racist groups are afraid of progress, regardless of gender, race or sexuality. We should learn from Savanna and Sharon and take action because if we don’t, the enemy will win.


Written by: Ynon Mager

The Psychology of Nazism

Holocaust Scholars and historians are asking the question: How did the German people choose consciously to support an anti-democratic regime that was against humanity at the dawn of WWII?

This question was particularly relevant during the Nuremberg trials after WWII. People heard about the horrific acts that occurred in the holocaust and wanted to know how so many people could murder so many innocent people in cold blood. What kind of personality did these people have and is it pathological?

In order to answer these questions, a number of leading psychiatrists and psychologists interviewed and psychologically tested a group of captured Nazi leaders. Using the Rorschach test, they wanted to explore the core of the Nazi personality in order to find out if it was pathological or normal. They also wanted to find out if there were similarities among the Nazi leaders and if they felt regret for the monstrous acts that they committed?

Another important matter during and after the war was the psychology of Adolf Hitler who was a fascination for a lot of psychologists and psychiatrists. They wanted to understand how the vision of one man brought the world into chaos. They wanted to know if he was normal or mad, and most importantly, if there’s some Hitler in each and every one of us?

In this article I will answer these questions using the data and findings of the Nuremberg psychologists and psychiatrists together with the psychological profile of Adolf Hitler. I will discuss the question whether the Nazis had personality disorders, or were they mentally sane, and only responded to command.

The Psychology of Evil Adolf Hitler

One of the most common beliefs about Hitler is that he was a mad genius who started the holocaust for personal vendetta against the Jewish people. There are a lot of references (mostly in the non-academic world) that claim that Hitler was pure evil and simply cannot be understood because he wasn’t a human. Contrary to this belief, especially in the historic research of WWII and the holocaust, there is a moral importance to study Hitler’s psychology, mind and behavior. The reason for this research is to understand how this one man brought chaos to Europe and most of the western world.

One of the first profiles about Hitler was published in 1939 by the famous psychiatrist Carl Jung who had met Hitler and Mussolini in 1930. Jung described Mussolini as a passionate man full of energy. On the other hand, Hitler frightened Jung because he was unfriendly, un-sexual and almost un-human. There was something different about Hitler. There was something about his personality that wasn’t recognized by Jung.

The second profile, published in 1972, was written by the psychiatrist Langer during WWII. The psychiatrist psychoanalyzed Hitler’s personality after reading Mein Kampf.  Hitler was diagnosed as neurotic and psychotic combined with messiah complex. Hitler had extreme sexual perversions and homosexual masochistic tendencies. Langer believed that Hitler would one day commit suicide.

Hitler and WWI

Langer believed that the traumatic event Hitler experienced during WWI as a soldier was the starting point of his mental illness. Hitler was 29 years old when his unit was attacked by chlorine gas in 1918.  Hitler’s sight was damaged which, as a result, ended his art career.

The loss of his sight together with unbearable pain, caused Hitler to blame the Jewish people for deserting Germany. His hatred grew and turned into an obsession and eventually into pathology. Hitler’s mind connected the physical pain and loss of his art career to the Jewish people. Langer argued that Hitler fabricated his injury to justify his murderous actions by saying that he was the victim rather than the attacker. This fabrication is a symptom of hysteric personality and schizophrenia.

Hitler and Oedipus complex

The famous psychoanalytic Erich Fromm published his diagnostic of Hitler’s personality in 1973 using Mein Kampf and Hitler’s personal history. According to Fromm’s diagnosis, Hitler was an anal narcissistic with self-destructive personality. Fromm argued that Hitler had Oedipus complex which projected into Germany and his hatred towards the Jews. His love for his mother reflected his love for Germany and the hatred for his abusive father reflected his hatred towards the Jewish people.

Should we know his psychology?

There are some holocaust researchers who believe there is no need to research Hitler’s history and personality. Even though he was the direct cause for the holocaust, they believe that Hitler shouldn’t be explained, and that every attempt at an explanation is  un-moral.

Psychopathology of the Nazi leaders

Several psychologists examined a group of Nazi leaders at the Nuremberg trials. Their tests showed that the leaders didn’t have personality pathology and were mentally sane. The only personality feature that they had in common was high intelligence.

The mental experts were looking for an anti-Semitic mental gene but couldn’t find one. The reason for Nazism in not in pathological personality. It derives from something else. In the next few paragraphs, I will write about the psychological tests and search for a Nazi etiology if there is one.

After WWII, the united forces captured most of the Nazi leaders who were all put to trial. Before they were brought to punishment for their crimes, they were psychologically profiled. The profiles were made for mapping and understanding the criminals’ minds. One psychiatrist and two psychologists (all American) used interviews and the Rorschach personality test in 1949.

The interviewers wanted to know if the Nazi leaders (and Nazis in general) were evil people, or just regular people who were forced to do horrible things?

During the trials, two out of three of the interviewers came to the conclusion that the leaders’ personality were not pathological but normative. These men were sane and chose to commit those horrible and horrific acts.

German Culture

German society during WWII was a society that had cultural principal, without judgment or critical thinking. Understanding this, another interviewer came to the conclusion that even no signs of personality pathology were discovered in the Nazi leaders, and therefore, the perspective must be social rather than psychological.

According to the interviewer, Western society during the times of WWII was sick. Germany was one of many with high levels of conformity and obedience to authority. This finding was politically dangerous because the Western world wanted the pathology of the leaders, not of the global society. People were looking for someone to blame for the wrongs of WWII. That’s why these findings were published 30 years later.



Looking back, knowing all the horrible acts of the holocaust, we allow ourselves to ask how it happened. How did so many people allow this nightmare to come true? How could people be so cruel?

These questions were asked at the Nuremberg trials. People couldn’t accept any answer rather than pathology. They didn’t want to hear any other answer, other than the sickness of the Nazi mind. They wanted to believe that only the sickest mind could commit these monstrous acts. But the truth was that psychologically, the leaders were sane and chose to follow horrible orders. The Nazi leaders said that they didn’t have any choice, and that they had to follow these orders or else they would have been killed. Furthermore, the leaders said that they weren’t acting as individuals but as a group.

Even though the psychological tests showed that the leaders were sane, they were punished for their evil acts. They chose to take innocent lives, and got what they deserved. We must not forget the power of conformity and authority. We must not forget how, for our own survival, and the survival of the ones we love, we will do whatever it takes to keep them safe. I hope that we never have to ask these questions ever again.


Written by: Mager Ynon


Society, Fashion and John Galliano’s Anti-Semitic Case

Fashion is a unique way to express yourself, a way to tell a story about yourself. A symbol of your place in society. Through fashion we can signal what is special in our personality or tell other people who we really are, or what we want to be. Clothing serves a significant role in the social construction of one’s self. Simply put, through fashion we can discover the nature of society. Examining clothes, helps understand the culture of a given society, as well as the social norms of how a citizen should look at a given time and how these norms vary across different periods.

Clothing is one of the most prominent manifestations of social status, gender and conditions of the body at the social field. Dress in past centuries was the main principle and symbol of social characteristics such as religion, gender, culture and profession were categorized using unique clothing for that feature. Clothing affects the experience of reality through the way it’s placed on the body and limits movement. For example, medieval fashion of aristocratic society did not allow range of motion for women.
As the garment allows movement, the society that the garment belongs to, is permissive and liberal.

In our postmodern era, there is a breakage of axioms like social dimensions, gender, race and sexuality. There is no strong binary of what clothes belongs to men or women as it used to be, but there is a meeting between the sexes, androgyny that is reflected in fashion.
Fashion is a way to recognize, norms, culture, social class and gender of a society. Fashion has a decisive influence on the opinions and perceptions of people. Fashion is an agent of socialization that influences opinion and perception of people on a particular topic. This kind of impact can be really positive and promote solidarity between people, but can also incite prejudice and racism. In this article I will discuss the case of the famous fashion designer John Galliano and his relationship with Judaism, alcohol and freedom of expression.

John Galliano is a British fashion designer who was the chief designer of the fashion company Christian Dior and Givenchy. These days John is the head editor of Paris fashion house “Masion margiela”.
Galliano’s fashion style is romantic, escapist, and very unique. His innovative style is combined with theatrical touches. His style includes unique narratives, such as forests, snow, fairy tales and much more. His authenticity and uniqueness give him high status in the fashion world.

Galliano was fired from his role as Chief Designer of Dior after a video was uploaded to the web where he was documented making anti-Semitic statements when he was drunk at a bar in Paris in 2011. Galliano justified his actions by saying he has a drinking problem. In February of that year, a French journalist received a video by email where Galliano is recorded cursing a group of Italian women. He was yelling “I love Hitler, people like you should die, your mothers, your fathers has to die in the fucking gas chambers”.

This happened a week before Paris fashion week in 2011-2012, and caused a shock in the fashion world. Thousands of people accused Galliano of anti-Semitism and racism, calling for boycotts against his. The video caused a worldwide communication storm which resulted in firing the designer.

Dior claimed it would not legitimize anti-Semitism and racism which is why they fired Galliano. After the media mayhem, Galliano admitted that he was wrong and didn’t mean what he said, mainly because he was drunk and had no control over his words. There is a law in France that forbids anti-Semitic statements in public and the punishment for it is a 6000 euro fine. Galliano broke this law and was required to pay the fine.

In my opinion, this case is very unique because of the moral dilemma. Was it moral to accuse Galliano of anti-Semitism and racism? Especially because he was drunk and didn’t have any control of his words. Is it ethical to fire and punish someone for drunk, racist, public statements? Did we take it too far?

Socially speaking, we usually aren’t fond of people who have different opinions than us. We want to exclude ourselves from these opinions and the holders of these opinions. We want justice to be served, and these people punished.

The most important question is which kind of material should be censored and which should be expressed?

By the constitution of freedom of speech, any material that leads to violence in any form, should be banned, and the beholder of the material should by sentenced.

There is a moral question regarding what should be censored and what should be expressed. How do we know if something really leads towards violence? There is a common belief that the government is very light on the trigger of censoring, and not letting people express themselves.
Regarding the Galliano case, is it moral to punish a man when he was drunk and had no control over his words? Would it be easier to judge him if he wasn’t drunk?

In my opinion, John Galliano is a provocative person. We see it in his fashion style. However, permission for uniqueness in not permission for racism. Even though he was drunk, every adult has the responsibility to decide when to stop drinking. Galliano had a history with Jewish people, and the bar incident was not the first anti-Semitic case. He once appeared on vogue magazine wearing traditional Jewish clothes, and on the cover, the word “smock” was written. So hearing him say these anti-Semitic remarks is not so surprising. Galliano broke the law and therefore he was punished. Letting everyone know that no matter how famous you are, whether you’re drunk or sober, if you choose to express hatred publicly you will be punished.
Written by: Ynon Mager

Escaping Anti-Semitism in France

Merely a year since the terror attack in the Hiperkosher supermarket in Paris, it seems as though the Jewish residents of the City of Lights are still under constant Anti-Semitic threat. An increasing number of Jews have decided in the last couple of months that Paris is not the peaceful and warm home they knew once knew, and that it is time to leave it for good.

France’s Jewish population is the largest in Europe, with approximately 500,000 of them living all across the country, and almost half of them living in the capital. Until recently a prospering community, the Jews in Paris are concentrating in small areas of the city, and many of them are leaving the city in order to find a quieter place to raise their children. And if that is not a sign for the deteriorating status of the Jews in France, some 8,000 of them have made “Aliya” to Israel in the last year, a record number.

The terror attack in the Hiperkosher supermarket last year symbolized a dangerous peak in the Anti-Semitic atmosphere in France, but it is important to remember that these kind of incidents are well publicized. Most of the Anti-Semitism that Jews are experiencing on a daily basis is “quite Anti-Semitism”. Incidents like offensive graffiti and verbal attacks are so common, that for most of the cases they don’t even get the attention of the police. Even more dramatic incidents such as actual violence, aren’t always getting the proper attention. With Anti-Semitic attacks rising 84% in 2015, it is hard to imagine an optimistic future for the Jews of France.

Written By: Atar David